Rodrigo R Amadeu

rramadeu at gmail dot com

https://rramadeu.github.io

AGHmatrix software is an R-package to build relationship matrices using pedigree (A matrix) and/or molecular markers (G matrix) with the possibility to build a combined matrix of Pedigree corrected by Molecular (H matrix). The package works with diploid and autopolyploid data.

`AGHmatrix`

Currently the package computes the following 17 different relationship matrices:

Additive | Non-Additive | |
---|---|---|

Diploid |
Henderson (1976) | Cockerham (1954) |

Autopolyploid |
Kerr (2012), Slater (2013) |

Additive | Non-Additive | |
---|---|---|

Diploid |
Yang (2010), VanRaden (2012), Liu (2020) | Su (2012), Vitezica (2013) |

Polyploid |
Slater (2016), de Bem Oliveira (2019) | Slater (2016), Endelman (2018) |

Any ploidy/effect |
---|

Legarra (2009), Munoz (2014), Martini (2018) |

Additionally there is a beta implementation to compute A matrix when
parentage is not deterministic as in a polycross design. See
`?AmatrixPolycross`

.

To cite this R package:

Amadeu, RR, C Cellon, JW Olmstead, AAF Garcia, MFR Resende, and PR
Munoz. 2016. AGHmatrix: R package to construct relationship matrices for
autotetraploid and diploid species: a blueberry example. *The Plant
Genome* 9(3). doi:
10.3835/plantgenome2016.01.0009

Within R:

```
## Install stable version
install.packages("AGHmatrix")
## Install development version
install.packages("devtools")
::install_github("rramadeu/AGHmatrix")
devtools
## Load
library(AGHmatrix)
```

`Amatrix`

process the pedigree and build the A-matrix
related to that given pedigree. The matrix is built based in the
recursive method presented in Mrode (2014) and described by Henderson
(1976). This method is expanded for higher ploidies (n-ploidy) as
detailed in Kerr et al. (2012). After loading the package you have to
load your data file into the software. To do this, you can use the
function `read.data()`

or `read.csv()`

for
example. Your data should be available in R as a `data.frame`

structure in the following order: column 1 must be the
individual/genotype names (id), columns 2 and 3 must be the parent
names. For the algorithm, it does not matter who is the mother and who
is the father (so, no sex column). There is a pedigree data example
(`ped.mrode`

) that can be used to look at the structure and
order the data.

To load `ped.mrode`

:

```
data(ped.mrode)
ped.mrode#> Ind Par1 Par2
#> 1 Anc1 0 0
#> 2 Anc2 0 0
#> 3 Var1 Anc1 Anc2
#> 4 Var2 Anc1 0
#> 5 Var3 Var2 Var1
#> 6 Var4 Var3 Anc2
str(ped.mrode) #check the structure
#> 'data.frame': 6 obs. of 3 variables:
#> $ Ind : Factor w/ 6 levels "Anc1","Anc2",..: 1 2 3 4 5 6
#> $ Par1: Factor w/ 4 levels "0","Anc1","Var2",..: 1 1 2 2 3 4
#> $ Par2: Factor w/ 3 levels "0","Anc2","Var1": 1 1 2 1 3 2
```

The example `ped.mrode`

has 3 columns, column 1 contains
the names of the individual/genotypes, column 2 contains the names of
the first parent, column 3 contains the names of the second parental
(example from Table 2.1 of Mrode 2014). There is no header template, and
the unknown value must be equal 0. Your data has to be in the same
format of `ped.mrode`

.

Internally the algorithm first pre-process the pedigree: the individuals are numerated \(1\) to \(n\). Then, it is verified whether the genotypes in the pedigree are in chronological order (i.e. if the parents of a given individual are located before to this individual in the pedigree data set). If this order is not followed, the algorithm performs the necessary changes to correct them in a iterative way. After this pre-processing, the matrix computation proceeds as in Henderson (1976) for diploid - for additive or dominance relationship - and as in Kerr et al. (2012) for autotetraploids - for additive relationship. For autotetraploids, there is the option to include double-reduction fraction. For diploids there is the option to compute the dominant relationship matrix (Cockerham, 1954).

It follows some usage examples with the `ped.mrode`

.

```
#Computing additive relationship matrix for diploids (Henderson 1976):
Amatrix(ped.mrode, ploidy=2)
#Computing dominant relationship matrix for diploids (Cockerham 1954):
Amatrix(ped.mrode, ploidy=2, dominance=TRUE)
#Computing additive relationship matrix for autotetraploids (Kerr 2012):
Amatrix(ped.mrode, ploidy=4)
#Computing additive relationship matrix for autooctaploids (Kerr 2012):
Amatrix(ped.mrode, ploidy=8)
#Computing additive relationship matrix for autotetraploids
# and double-reduction of 0.1 (Kerr 2012):
Amatrix(ped.mrode, ploidy=4, w=0.1)
#Computing additive relationship matrix for autotetraploids
# and double-reduction of 0.1 as in Slater et al. (2014):
Amatrix(ped.mrode, ploidy=4, w=0.1, slater = TRUE)
#not recommended, but kept in the package to reproduce some former analysis
#Computing additive relationship matrix for autohexaploids
# and double-reduction of 0.1 (Kerr 2012):
Amatrix(ped.mrode, ploidy=6, w=0.1)
```

More information about `Amatrix`

can be found with:

` ?Amatrix`

`Gmatrix`

handles the molecular-marker matrix and builds
the relationship matrix. Molecular markers data should be organized in a
matrix format (individuals in rows and markers in columns) coded as 0,
1, 2 and missing data value (numeric or `NA`

). Import your
molecular marker data into `R`

with the function
`read.table()`

or `read.csv()`

and convert to a
matrix format with the function `as.matrix()`

. The function
`Gmatrix`

can be used to construct the additive relationship
either as proposed by Yang et al. (2010) or the proposed by VanRaden
(2008). The function can also construct the dominance relationship
matrix either as proposed by Su et al. (2012) or as proposed by Vitezica
et al. (2013). As an example, here we build the four matrices using real
data from Resende et al. (2012).

To load `snp.pine`

and to check its structure:

```
data(snp.pine)
1:5,1:5]
snp.pine[#> 0-10024-01-114 0-10037-01-257 0-10040-02-394 0-10040-02-41
#> 1087120 -9 1 -9 -9
#> 1085618 2 2 2 2
#> 1091040 2 1 2 2
#> 1091686 2 1 2 2
#> 1082624 2 2 0 1
#> 0-10044-01-392
#> 1087120 -9
#> 1085618 2
#> 1091040 2
#> 1091686 2
#> 1082624 1
str(snp.pine)
#> int [1:926, 1:4853] -9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ...
#> - attr(*, "dimnames")=List of 2
#> ..$ : chr [1:926] "1087120" "1085618" "1091040" "1091686" ...
#> ..$ : chr [1:4853] "0-10024-01-114" "0-10037-01-257" "0-10040-02-394" "0-10040-02-41" ...
```

In this dataset, we have 926 individuals with 4853 markers and the
missing data value is `-9`

.

It follows some examples with the `snp.pine`

data where
the unknown value (`missingValue`

) is `-9`

. Here
we set minimum allele frequency to `0.05`

, so markers with
minor allele frequency lower than 0.05 are removed from the dataset
prior to the G matrix construction.

```
#Computing the additive relationship matrix based on VanRaden 2008
<- Gmatrix(SNPmatrix=snp.pine, missingValue=-9,
G_VanRadenPine maf=0.05, method="VanRaden")
#Computing the additive relationship matrix based on Yang 2010
<- Gmatrix(SNPmatrix=snp.pine, missingValue=-9,
G_YangPine maf=0.05, method="Yang")
#Computing the dominance relationship matrix based on Su 2012
<- Gmatrix(SNPmatrix=snp.pine, missingValue=-9,
G_SuPine maf=0.05, method="Su")
#Computing the dominance relationship matrix based on Vitezica 2013
<- Gmatrix(SNPmatrix=snp.pine, missingValue=-9,
G_VitezicaPine maf=0.05, method="Vitezica")
```

More information about `Gmatrix`

can be found with:

` ?Gmatrix`

Molecular markers data should be organized in a matrix format
(individual in rows and markers in columns) coded according to the
dosage level: 0, 1, 2, …, ploidy level, and missing data value (numeric
user-defined or `NA`

). As an example, an autotetraploid
should be coded as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and a missing data value. In
autopolyploids, the function `Gmatrix`

can be used to
construct: i) the additive relationship based on VanRaden (2008) and
extended by Ashraf (2016); ii) the full-autopolyploid including additive
and non-additive model as equations 8 and 9 in Slater et al. (2016);
iii) the pseudo-diploid model as equations 5, 6, and 7 Slater et
al. (2016). iv) the digenic-dominant model based on Endelman et
al. (2018). As an example, here we build the matrices using data from
Endelman et al. (2018) (`snp.sol`

). There is also an option
to build weighted relationship matrices as in Liu et al. (2020).

The argument `ploidy.correction`

defines the denominator
of the formula for the `VanRaden`

method. If
`ploidy.correction=TRUE`

, it uses the parametric correction
as \(\sum_i p f_i(1-f_i)\), where \(p\) is the ploidy level and \(f_i\) is the minor allele frequency of the
\(i_th\) marker. If
`ploidy.correction=FALSE`

, it uses the sampling variance
correction as \(\sum_i \frac{1}{p}
s^2(m_i)\), where \(s^2(m_i)\)
is the sampling variance of the \(i_th\) marker. Both corrections are
equivalent when sampling size goes to the infinity. The default is to
use the sampling variance as the correction (i.e.,
`ploidy.correction=FALSE`

).

```
#Loading the data
data(snp.sol)
str(snp.sol)
#Computing the additive relationship matrix based on VanRaden 2008
# adapted by Ashraf 2016
<- Gmatrix(snp.sol, method="VanRaden", ploidy=4)
G_VanRaden
#Computing the dominance (digenic) matrix based on Endelman 2018 (Eq. 19)
<- Gmatrix(snp.sol, method="Endelman", ploidy=4)
G_Dominance
#Computing the full-autopolyploid matrix based on Slater 2016 (Eq. 8
#and 9)
<- Gmatrix(snp.sol, method="Slater", ploidy=4)
G_FullAutopolyploid
#Computing the pseudodiploid matrix based on Slater 2016 (Eq. 5, 6,
#and 7)
<- Gmatrix(snp.sol, method="VanRaden", ploidy=4, pseudo.diploid=TRUE)
G_Pseudodiploid
#Computing G matrix with specific weight for each marker as
# in Liu et al. (2020).
<- Gmatrix(snp.sol, method="VanRaden", weights = runif(3895,0.001,0.1), ploidy=4) Gmatrix_weighted
```

More information about `Gmatrix`

can be found with:

` ?Gmatrix`

Molecular markers data should be organized in a matrix format (individual in rows and markers in columns) coded according to a fraction that represents its molecular information, this can be any number between 0 to 1. Such ratio can represent the count of alternative alleles over the read depth for each individual-marker combination (GBS-like technique). It can be the signal of the alternative allele over the sum of the signals of the alternative and reference alleles (GCMS-like technique). It can also be used for family-pool genotypes.

```
#Loading the data
library(AGHmatrix)
data(snp.sol)
= snp.sol/4 #transforming it in a ratio of the minor allele frequency
snp.sol.ratio <- Gmatrix(snp.sol, method="VanRaden", ploidy=4, ratio=FALSE)
Gmatrix <- Gmatrix(snp.sol.ratio, method="VanRaden", ploidy=4, ratio=TRUE)
Gmatrix.ratio 1:5,1:5]==Gmatrix.ratio[1:5,1:5]
Gmatrix[
## it also has the ploidy.correction option
<- Gmatrix(snp.sol,
Gmatrix.alternative method="VanRaden",
ploidy=4,
ratio=FALSE,
ploidy.correction=TRUE)
<- Gmatrix(snp.sol.ratio,
Gmatrix.ratio.alternative method="VanRaden",
ploidy=4,
ratio=TRUE,
ploidy.correction=TRUE)
1:5,1:5]==Gmatrix.alternative[1:5,1:5]
Gmatrix[1:5,1:5]==Gmatrix.ratio.alternative[1:5,1:5] Gmatrix.alternative[
```

H matrix is the relationship matrix using combined information from
the pedigree and genomic relationship matrices. First, you need to
compute the matrices separated and then use them as input to build the
combined H matrix. Two methods are implemented: `Munoz`

shrinks the G matrix towards the A matrix scaling the molecular
relatadness by each relationship classes; `Martini`

is a
modified version from Legarra et al. 2009 where combines A and G matrix
using scaling factors. As an example, here we build the matrices using
data from Endelman et al. (2018) (`ped.sol`

and
`snp.sol`

).

```
data(ped.sol)
data(snp.sol)
#Computing the numerator relationship matrix 10% of double-reduction
<- Amatrix(ped.sol, ploidy=4, w = 0.1)
Amat <- Gmatrix(snp.sol, ploidy=4,
Gmat maf=0.05, method="VanRaden")
<- round(Gmat,3) #see appendix
Gmat
#Computing H matrix (Martini)
<- Hmatrix(A=Amat, G=Gmat, method="Martini",
Hmat_Martini ploidy=4, missingValue=-9, maf=0.05)
#Computing H matrix (Munoz)
<- Hmatrix(A=Amat, G=Gmat, markers = snp.sol,
Hmat_Munoz ploidy=4, method="Munoz",
missingValue=-9, maf=0.05)
```

Here we present how to compute the epistasis relationship matrices
using Hadamard products (i.e. cell-by-cell product), denoted by
`*`

. For more information please see Munoz et al. (2014). In
this example we are using the molecular-based relationship matrices.
First, build the additive and dominance matrices:

```
data(snp.pine)
<- Gmatrix(SNPmatrix=snp.pine, method="VanRaden", missingValue=-9, maf=0.05)
A <- Gmatrix(SNPmatrix=snp.pine, method="Vitezica", missingValue=-9,maf=0.05) D
```

For the first degree epistatic terms:

```
#Additive-by-Additive Interactions
<- A*A
A_A #Dominance-by-Additive Interactions
<- D*A
D_A #Dominance-by-Dominance Interactions
<- D*D D_D
```

For the second degree epistatic terms:

```
#Additive-by-Additive-by-Additive Interactions
<- A*A*A
A_A_A #Additive-by-Additive-by-Dominance Interactions
<- A*A*D
A_A_D #Additive-by-Dominance-by-Dominance Interactions
<- A*D*D
A_D_D #Dominance-by-Dominance-by-Dominance Interactions
<- D*D*D D_D_D
```

And so on…

That is the lower diagonal matrix formatted in three columns in .csv
format (other ASCII extension could be used as well). In order to do
this, we need to build a matrix, its inverse, and export it using
`formatmatrix`

function. ASReml can invert the relationship
matrix as well, probably more efficiently than R for large matrices
(i.e. `solve()`

function), so no need to invert the matrix in
R if matrix is large. This function has as options:
`round.by`

, which let you decide the number of decimals you
want; `exclude.0`

, if `TRUE`

, remove all the zeros
from your data (i.e., transforms into sparse); and, name that defines
the name to be used in the exported file. Use the default if not sure
what parameter use in these function. Here an example using
`ped.mrode`

data:

```
#Loading the data example
data(ped.mrode)
#Computing the matrix
<- Amatrix(data=ped.mrode, ploidy=4, w=0.1)
A
#Building its inverse
<- solve(A)
Ainv
#Exporting it. The function "formatmatrix"
# will convert it and save in your working directory
formatmatrix(Ainv, round.by=12, exclude.0=TRUE, name="Ainv")
```

Creates an additive relationship matrix A based on a
non-deterministic pedigree with 4+ columns where each column represents
a possible parent. This function was built with the following designs in
mind. 1) A mating design where you have equally possible parents. For
example, a generation of insects derived from the mating of three
insects in a cage. All the insects in this generation will have the same
expected relatedness with all the possible parents (1/3). If there are
only two parents in the cage, the function assumes no-inbreeding and the
pedigree is deterministic (the individual is offspring of the cross
between the two parents). Another example, a population of 10
open-pollinated plants where you harvest the seeds without tracking the
mother. 2) When `fixedParent`

is TRUE: a mating design where
you know one parent and might know the other possible parents. For
example, a polycross design where you have seeds harvested from a mother
plant and possible polén donors.

The following pedigree has the id of the individual followed by
possible parents. The possible parents are filled from left to right, in
the `pedigree`

data frame: id 1,2,3,4 have unknown parents
and are assumed unrelated; id 5 has three possible parents (1,2,3); id 6
has three possible parents (2,3,4); id 7 has two parents (deterministic
case here, the parents are 3 and 4); id 8 has four possible parents
(5,6,7,1).

```
= data.frame(id=1:8,
pedigree parent1 = c(0,0,0,0,1,2,3,5),
parent2 = c(0,0,0,0,2,3,4,6),
parent3 = c(0,0,0,0,3,4,0,7),
parent4 = c(0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1),
parent5 = 0)
print(pedigree)
#> id parent1 parent2 parent3 parent4 parent5
#> 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
#> 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
#> 3 3 0 0 0 0 0
#> 4 4 0 0 0 0 0
#> 5 5 1 2 3 0 0
#> 6 6 2 3 4 0 0
#> 7 7 3 4 0 0 0
#> 8 8 5 6 7 1 0
AmatrixPolyCross(pedigree)
#> Your data was chronologically organized with success.
#> Your data was chronologically organized with success.
#> Your data was chronologically organized with success.
#> Your data was chronologically organized with success.
#> Constructing matrix A using ploidy = 2
#> Completed! Time = 0.0003333333 minutes
#> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
#> 1 1.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.3333333 0.0000000 0.0000000
#> 2 0.0000000 1.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.3333333 0.3333333 0.0000000
#> 3 0.0000000 0.0000000 1.0000000 0.0000000 0.3333333 0.3333333 0.5000000
#> 4 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000 1.0000000 0.0000000 0.3333333 0.5000000
#> 5 0.3333333 0.3333333 0.3333333 0.0000000 1.0000000 0.2222222 0.1666667
#> 6 0.0000000 0.3333333 0.3333333 0.3333333 0.2222222 1.0000000 0.3333333
#> 7 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.5000000 0.5000000 0.1666667 0.3333333 1.0000000
#> 8 0.3333333 0.1666667 0.2916667 0.2083333 0.4305556 0.3888889 0.3750000
#> 8
#> 1 0.3333333
#> 2 0.1666667
#> 3 0.2916667
#> 4 0.2083333
#> 5 0.4305556
#> 6 0.3888889
#> 7 0.3750000
#> 8 1.0879630
```

If `fixedParent=TRUE`

, the above pedigree will be
interpreted with the possible parents are filled from left to right
after the known parent, in the `pedigree`

data frame: id
1,2,3,4 have unknown parents and are assumed unrelated; id 5 is
offspring of parent 1 in a deterministic way and two other possible
parents (2,3); id 6 is offspring of parent 2 in a deterministic way and
two other possible parents (3,4); id 7 has two parents (deterministic
case here, the parents are 3 and 4); as before; id 8 is offspring of
parent 5 in a deterministic way and has three other possible parents
(6,7,1).

```
AmatrixPolyCross(pedigree,fixedParent=TRUE)
#> Your data was chronologically organized with success.
#> Your data was chronologically organized with success.
#> Your data was chronologically organized with success.
#> Your data was chronologically organized with success.
#> Completed! Time = 0 minutes
#> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
#> 1 1.0000000 0.0000000 0.00 0.000 0.5000000 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.4166667
#> 2 0.0000000 1.0000000 0.00 0.000 0.2500000 0.5000000 0.0000000 0.2083333
#> 3 0.0000000 0.0000000 1.00 0.000 0.2500000 0.2500000 0.5000000 0.2500000
#> 4 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.00 1.000 0.0000000 0.2500000 0.5000000 0.1250000
#> 5 0.5000000 0.2500000 0.25 0.000 1.0000000 0.1875000 0.1250000 0.6354167
#> 6 0.0000000 0.5000000 0.25 0.250 0.1875000 1.0000000 0.2500000 0.3020833
#> 7 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.50 0.500 0.1250000 0.2500000 1.0000000 0.2708333
#> 8 0.4166667 0.2083333 0.25 0.125 0.6354167 0.3020833 0.2708333 1.1354167
```

It follows a small memory and computational time profiling for the
`Amatrix()`

function. The required RAM was computed based on
the peak of the process for different pedigree sizes (based on
/usr/bin/time -v output). The time profiling was done using AMD Milan
2.95GHz, so it might be an underestimated value when compared with lower
speed processors. Numerator relationship matrices for pedigrees with
less than 20,000 rows can built with low-specs user-end machines
(<8GB RAM) using our package.

Amadeu, RR, et al. 2016 AGHmatrix: R package to construct relationship matrices for autotetraploid and diploid species: a blueberry example. The Plant Genome 9, 4. https://doi.org/10.3835/plantgenome2016.01.0009

Ashraf, BH, et al. 2016. Estimating genomic heritabilities at the level of family-pool samples of perennial ryegrass using genotyping-by-sequencing. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 129, 45-52. https://doi.org/0.1007/s00122-015-2607-9

Cockerham, CC. 1954 An extension of the concept of partitioning hereditary variance for analysis of covariances among relatives when epistasis is present. Genetics 39, 859–882

de Bem Oliveira, I, et al. 2019 Genomic prediction of autotetraploids; influence of relationship matrices, allele dosage, and continuous genotyping calls in phenotype prediction. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, 9(4), pp.1189-1198.

Endelman, JB, et al. 2018 Genetic variance partitioning and genome-wide prediction with allele dosage information in autotetraploid potato. Genetics 209, 77-87. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.118.300685

Hamilton, MG, et al. 2017 Computation of the inverse additive relationship matrix for autopolyploid and multiple-ploidy populations. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 131, 851-890. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-017-3041-y

Henderson, C. 1976 A simple method for computing the inverse of a numerator relationship matrix used in prediction of breeding values. Biometrics 32, 69–83. https://doi.org/10.2307/2529339

Kerr, RJ, et al., 2012 Use of the numerator relation ship matrix in genetic analysis of autopolyploid species. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 124, 1271–1282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-012-1785-y

Legarra, A, et al. 2009 A relationship matrix including full pedigree and genomic information. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 4656–4663.

Liu, A, et al. 2020. Weighted single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction integrating variants selected from sequencing data by association and bioinformatics analyses. Genet Sel Evol 52, 48.

Martini, JW, et al. 2018, The effect of the H\(^{1}\) scaling factors \(\tau\) and \(\omega\) on the structure of H in the single-step procedure. Genetics Selection Evolution 50(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12711-018-0386-x

Mrode, RA. 2014 *Linear models for the prediction of animal
breeding values*. Cabi. 3rd ed.

Munoz, PR, et al., 2014 Unraveling additive from nonadditive effects using genomic relationship matrices. Genetics 198, 1759–1768. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.114.171322

R Core Team, 2016 *R*: A Language and Environment for
Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna,
Austria.

Resende, MF, et al. 2012 Accuracy of genomic selection methods in a
standard data set of loblolly pine (*Pinus taeda* l.). Genetics
190, 1503–1510. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.111.137026

Slater, AT, et al. 2014 Improving the analysis of low heritability complex traits for enhanced genetic gain in potato. Theoretical and applied genetics 127, 809–820. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-013-2258-7

Slater, AT, et al. 2016 Improving genetic gain with genomic selection in autotetraploid potato. The Plant Genome 9. https://doi.org/10.3835/plantgenome2016.02.0021

Su, G, et al. 2012 Estimating additive and non-additive genetic variances and predicting genetic merits using genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism markers. PloS one 7, e45293. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045293

VanRaden, P. 2008 Efficient methods to compute genomic predictions. Journal of dairy science 91, 4414–4423. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0980

Vitezica, ZG, et al. 2013 On the additive and dominant variance and covariance of individuals within the genomic selection scope. Genetics 195, 1223–1230. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.113.155176

Yang, J, et al. 2010 Common snps explain a large proportion of the heritability for human height. Nature genetics 42, 565–569. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.608

```
sessionInfo()
#> R version 4.2.3 (2023-03-15 ucrt)
#> Platform: x86_64-w64-mingw32/x64 (64-bit)
#> Running under: Windows 10 x64 (build 19044)
#>
#> Matrix products: default
#>
#> locale:
#> [1] LC_COLLATE=C
#> [2] LC_CTYPE=English_United States.utf8
#> [3] LC_MONETARY=English_United States.utf8
#> [4] LC_NUMERIC=C
#> [5] LC_TIME=English_United States.utf8
#>
#> attached base packages:
#> [1] stats graphics grDevices utils datasets methods base
#>
#> other attached packages:
#> [1] AGHmatrix_2.1.0 rmarkdown_2.21 knitr_1.42
#>
#> loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
#> [1] codetools_0.2-19 lattice_0.20-45 zoo_1.8-11 digest_0.6.31
#> [5] grid_4.2.3 R6_2.5.1 jsonlite_1.8.4 evaluate_0.20
#> [9] highr_0.10 cachem_1.0.7 rlang_1.1.0 cli_3.6.1
#> [13] rstudioapi_0.14 jquerylib_0.1.4 Matrix_1.5-3 bslib_0.4.2
#> [17] tools_4.2.3 xfun_0.38 yaml_2.3.7 fastmap_1.1.1
#> [21] compiler_4.2.3 htmltools_0.5.5 sass_0.4.5
```