# Communicate lifecycle changes in your functions

lifecycle provides a standard way to document the lifecycle stages of functions and arguments, paired with tools to steer users away from deprecated functions. Before we go in to the details, make sure that you’re familiar with the lifecycle stages as described in vignette("stages").

## Basics

lifecycle badges make it easy for users to see the lifecycle stage when reading the documentation. To use the badges, first call usethis::use_lifecycle() to embed the badge images in your package (you only need to do this once), then use lifecycle::badge() to insert a badge:

#' r lifecycle::badge("experimental")
#' r lifecycle::badge("deprecated")
#' r lifecycle::badge("superseded")

Deprecated functions also need to advertise their status when run. lifecycle provides deprecate_warn() which takes three main arguments:

• The first argument, when, gives the version number when the deprecation occurred.

• The second argument, what, describes exactly what was deprecated.

• The third argument, with, provides the recommended alternative.

We’ll cover the details shortly, but here are a few sample uses:

lifecycle::deprecate_warn("1.0.0", "old_fun()", "new_fun()")
#> Warning: old_fun() was deprecated in lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ Please use new_fun() instead.
#> ℹ The deprecated feature was likely used in the base package.
#>   Please report the issue to the authors.
lifecycle::deprecate_warn("1.0.0", "fun()", "testthat::fun()")
#> Warning: fun() was deprecated in lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ Please use testthat::fun() instead.
#> ℹ The deprecated feature was likely used in the base package.
#>   Please report the issue to the authors.
lifecycle::deprecate_warn("1.0.0", "fun(old_arg)", "fun(new_arg)")
#> Warning: The old_arg argument of fun() is deprecated as of lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ Please use the new_arg argument instead.
#> ℹ The deprecated feature was likely used in the base package.
#>   Please report the issue to the authors.

(Note that the message includes the package name — this is automatically discovered from the environment of the calling function so will not work unless the function is called from the package namespace.)

The following sections describe how to use lifecycle badges and functions together to handle a variety of common development tasks.

## Functions

### Deprecate a function

First, add a badge to the the @description block1. Briefly describe why the deprecation occurred and what to use instead.

#' Add two numbers
#'
#' @description
#' r lifecycle::badge("deprecated")
#'
#' This function was deprecated because we realised that it's
#' a special case of the [sum()] function.

Next, update the examples to show how to convert from the old usage to the new usage:

#' @examples
#' add_two(1, 2)
#' # ->
#' sum(1, 2)

Then add @keywords internal to remove the function from the documentation index. If you use pkgdown, also check that it’s no longer listed in _pkgdown.yml. These changes reduce the chance of new users coming across a deprecated function, but don’t prevent those who already know about it from referring to the docs.

#' @keywords internal

You’re now done with the docs, and it’s time to add a warning when the user calls your function. Do this by adding call to deprecate_warn() on the first line of the function:

add_two <- function(x, y) {
lifecycle::deprecate_warn("1.0.0", "add_two()", "base::sum()")
x + y
}

add_two(1, 2)
#> Warning: add_two() was deprecated in lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ Please use base::sum() instead.
#> [1] 3

deprecate_warn() generates user friendly messages for two common deprecation alternatives:

• Function in same package: lifecycle::deprecate_warn("1.0.0", "fun_old()", "fun_new()")

• Function in another package: lifecycle::deprecate_warn("1.0.0", "old()", "package::new()")

For other cases, use the details argument to provide your own message to the user:

add_two <- function(x, y) {
lifecycle::deprecate_warn(
"1.0.0",
"add_two()",
details = "This function is a special case of sum(); use it instead."
)
x + y
}

add_two(1, 2)
#> Warning: add_two() was deprecated in lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ This function is a special case of sum(); use it instead.
#> [1] 3

It’s good practice to test that you’ve correctly implemented the deprecation, testing that the deprecated function still works and that it generates a useful warning. Using an expectation inside testthat::expect_snapshot()2 is a convenient way to do this:

test_that("add_two is deprecated", {
expect_snapshot({
x <- add_two(1, 1)
expect_equal(x, 2)
})
})

If you have existing tests for the deprecated function you can suppress the warning in those tests with the lifecycle_verbosity option:

test_that("add_two returns the sum of its inputs", {
withr::local_options(lifecycle_verbosity = "quiet")
expect_equal(add_two(1, 1), 2)
})

And then add a separate test specifically for the deprecation.

test_that("add_two is deprecated", {
expect_snapshot(add_two(1, 1))
})

### Gradual deprecation

For particularly important functions, you can choose to add two other stages to the deprecation process:

• deprecate_soft() is used before deprecate_warn(). This function only warns (a) users who try the feature from the global environment and (b) developers who directly use the feature (when running testthat tests). There is no warning when the deprecated feature is called indirectly by another package — the goal is to ensure that warn only the person who has the power to stop using the deprecated feature.

• deprecate_stop() comes after deprecate_warn() and generates an error instead of a warning. The main benefit over simply removing the function is that the user is informed about the replacement.

If you use these stages you’ll also need a process for bumping the deprecation stage for major and minor releases. We recommend something like this:

1. Search for deprecate_stop() and consider if you’re ready to the remove the function completely.

2. Search for deprecate_warn() and replace with deprecate_stop(). Remove the remaining body of the function and any tests.

3. Search for deprecate_soft() and replace with deprecate_warn().

### Rename a function

To rename a function without breaking existing code, move the implementation to the new function, then call the new function from the old function, along with a deprecation message:

#' Add two numbers
#'
#' @description
#' r lifecycle::badge("deprecated")
#'
#' add_two() was renamed to number_add() to create a more
#' consistent API.
#' @keywords internal
#' @export
add_two <- function(foo, bar) {
lifecycle::deprecate_warn("1.0.0", "add_two()", "number_add()")
number_add(foo, bar)
}

# documentation goes here...
#' @export
number_add <- function(x, y) {
x + y
}

If you are renaming many functions as part of an API overhaul, it’ll often make sense to document all the changes in one file, like https://rvest.tidyverse.org/reference/rename.html.

### Supersede a function

Superseding a function is simpler than deprecating it, since you don’t need to steer users away from it with a warning. So all you need to do is add a superseded badge:

#' Gather columns into key-value pairs
#'
#' @description
#' r lifecycle::badge("superseded")

Then describe why the function was superseded, and what the recommended alternative is:

#'
#' Development on gather() is complete, and for new code we recommend
#' switching to pivot_longer(), which is easier to use, more featureful,
#' and still under active development.
#'
#' In brief,
#' df %>% gather("key", "value", x, y, z) is equivalent to
#' df %>% pivot_longer(c(x, y, z), names_to = "key", values_to = "value").
#' See more details in vignette("pivot").

The rest of the documentation can stay the same.

If you’re willing to live on the bleeding edge of lifecycle, add a call to the experimental signal_stage():

gather <- function(data, key = "key", value = "value", ...) {
lifecycle::signal_stage("superseded", "gather()")
}

This signal isn’t currently hooked up to any behaviour, but we plan to provide logging and analysis tools in a future release.

### Mark function as experimental

To advertise that a function is experimental and the interface might change in the future, first add an experimental badge to the description:

#' @description
#' r lifecycle::badge("experimental")

If the function is very experimental, you might want to add @keywords internal too.

If you’re willing to try an experimental lifecycle feature, add a call to signal_stage() in the body:

cool_function <- function() {
lifecycle::signal_stage("experimental", "cool_function()")
}

This signal isn’t currently hooked up to any behaviour, but we plan to provide logging and analysis tools in a future release.

## Arguments

### Deprecate an argument, keeping the existing default

Take this example where we want to deprecate na.rm in favour of always making it TRUE.

add_two <- function(x, y, na.rm = TRUE) {
sum(x, y, na.rm = na.rm)
}

First, add a badge to the argument description:

#' @param na.rm r lifecycle::badge("deprecated") na.rm = FALSE is no
#'   longer supported; this function will always remove missing values

And add a deprecation warning if na.rm is FALSE. In this case, there’s no replacement to the behaviour, so we instead use details to provide a custom message:

add_two <- function(x, y, na.rm = TRUE) {
if (!isTRUE(na.rm)) {
lifecycle::deprecate_warn(
when = "1.0.0",
what = "add_two(na.rm)",
details = "Ability to retain missing values will be dropped in next release."
)
}

sum(x, y, na.rm = na.rm)
}

add_two(1, NA, na.rm = TRUE)
#> [1] 1
add_two(1, NA, na.rm = FALSE)
#> Warning: The na.rm argument of add_two() is deprecated as of lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ Ability to retain missing values will be dropped in next release.
#> [1] NA

### Deprecating an argument, providing a new default

Alternatively, you can change the default value to lifecycle::deprecated() to make the deprecation status more obvious from the outside, and use lifecycle::is_present() to test whether or not the argument was provided. Unlike missing(), this works for both direct and indirect calls.

#' @importFrom lifecycle deprecated
add_two <- function(x, y, na.rm = deprecated()) {
if (lifecycle::is_present(na.rm)) {
lifecycle::deprecate_warn(
when = "1.0.0",
what = "add_two(na.rm)",
details = "Ability to retain missing values will be dropped in next release."
)
}

sum(x, y, na.rm = na.rm)
}

The chief advantage of this technique is that users will get a warning regardless of what value of na.rm they use:

add_two(1, NA, na.rm = TRUE)
#> Warning: The na.rm argument of add_two() is deprecated as of lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ Ability to retain missing values will be dropped in next release.
#> [1] 1
add_two(1, NA, na.rm = FALSE)
#> Warning: The na.rm argument of add_two() is deprecated as of lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ Ability to retain missing values will be dropped in next release.
#> [1] NA

### Renaming an argument

You may want to rename an argument if you realise you have made a mistake with the name of an argument. For example, you’ve realised that an argument accidentally uses . to separate a compound name, instead of _. You’ll need to temporarily permit both arguments, generating a deprecation warning when the user supplies the old argument:

add_two <- function(x, y, na_rm = TRUE, na.rm = deprecated()) {
if (lifecycle::is_present(na.rm)) {
lifecycle::deprecate_warn("1.0.0", "add_two(na.rm)", "add_two(na_rm)")
na_rm <- na.rm
}

add_two(x, y, na.rm = na_rm)
}

### Reducing allowed inputs to an argument

To narrow the set of allowed inputs, call deprecate_warn() only when the user supplies the previously supported inputs. Make sure you preserve the previous behaviour:

add_two <- function(x, y) {
if (length(y) != 1) {
lifecycle::deprecate_warn("1.0.0", "foo(y = 'must be a scalar')")
y <- sum(y)
}
x + y
}

add_two(1, 2)
#> [1] 3
add_two(1, 1:5)
#> Warning: The y argument of foo() must be a scalar as of lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> [1] 16

## Anything else

You can wrap what and with in I() to deprecate behaviours not otherwise described above:

lifecycle::deprecate_warn(
when = "1.0.0",
what = I('Setting the global option "pkg.opt" to "foo"')
)
#> Warning: Setting the global option "pkg.opt" to "foo" was deprecated in lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ The deprecated feature was likely used in the base package.
#>   Please report the issue to the authors.

lifecycle::deprecate_warn(
when = "1.0.0",
what = I('The global option "pkg.another_opt"'),
with = I('"pkg.this_opt"')
)
#> Warning: The global option "pkg.another_opt" was deprecated in lifecycle 1.0.0.
#> ℹ Please use "pkg.this_opt" instead.
#> ℹ The deprecated feature was likely used in the base package.
#>   Please report the issue to the authors.

Note that your what fragment needs to make sense with “was deprecated …” added to the end, and your with fragment needs to make sense in the sentence “Please use {with} instead”.

1. We only use an explicit @description when the description will be multiple paragraphs, as in these examples.↩︎

2. You can learn more about snapshot testing in vignette("snapshotting", package = "testthat").↩︎