This vignette describes various ways of summarizing
`emmGrid`

objects.

`summary()`

, `confint()`

, and
`test()`

The most important method for `emmGrid`

objects is
`summary()`

. For one thing, it is called by default when you
display an `emmeans()`

result. The `summary()`

function has a lot of options, and the detailed documentation via
`help("summary.emmGrid")`

is worth a look.

For ongoing illustrations, let’s re-create some of the objects in the
“basics” vignette for the `pigs`

example:

```
pigs.lm1 <- lm(log(conc) ~ source + factor(percent), data = pigs)
pigs.rg <- ref_grid(pigs.lm1)
pigs.emm.s <- emmeans(pigs.rg, "source")
```

Just `summary(<object>)`

by itself will produce a
summary that varies somewhat according to context. It does this by
setting different defaults for the `infer`

argument, which
consists of two logical values, specifying confidence intervals and
tests, respectively. [The exception is models fitted using MCMC methods,
where `summary()`

is diverted to the
`hpd.summary()`

function, a preferable summary for many
Bayesians.]

The summary of a newly made reference grid will show just estimates
and standard errors, but not confidence intervals or tests (that is,
`infer = c(FALSE, FALSE)`

). The summary of an
`emmeans()`

result, as we see above, will have intervals, but
no tests (i.e., `infer = c(TRUE, FALSE)`

); and the result of
a `contrast()`

call (see comparisons and contrasts) will show test
statistics and *P* values, but not intervals (i.e.,
`infer = c(FALSE, TRUE)`

). There are courtesy methods
`confint()`

and `test()`

that just call
`summary()`

with the appropriate `infer`

setting;
for example,

`test(pigs.emm.s)`

```
## source emmean SE df t.ratio p.value
## fish 3.39 0.0367 23 92.540 <.0001
## soy 3.67 0.0374 23 97.929 <.0001
## skim 3.80 0.0394 23 96.407 <.0001
##
## Results are averaged over the levels of: percent
## Results are given on the log (not the response) scale.
```

It is not particularly useful, though, to test these EMMs against the default of zero – which is why tests are not usually shown. It makes a lot more sense to test them against some target concentration, say 40. And suppose we want to do a one-sided test to see if the concentration is greater than 40. Remembering that the response is log-transformed in this model,

`test(pigs.emm.s, null = log(40), side = ">")`

```
## source emmean SE df null t.ratio p.value
## fish 3.39 0.0367 23 3.69 -8.026 1.0000
## soy 3.67 0.0374 23 3.69 -0.577 0.7153
## skim 3.80 0.0394 23 3.69 2.740 0.0058
##
## Results are averaged over the levels of: percent
## Results are given on the log (not the response) scale.
## P values are right-tailed
```

It is also possible to add calculated columns to the summary, via the
`calc`

argument. The calculations can include any columns up
through `df`

in the summary, as well as any variable in the
object’s `grid`

slot. Among the latter are usually weights in
a column named `.wgt.`

, and we can use that to include sample
size in the summary:

`confint(pigs.emm.s, calc = c(n = ~.wgt.))`

```
## source emmean SE df n lower.CL upper.CL
## fish 3.39 0.0367 23 10 3.32 3.47
## soy 3.67 0.0374 23 10 3.59 3.74
## skim 3.80 0.0394 23 9 3.72 3.88
##
## Results are averaged over the levels of: percent
## Results are given on the log (not the response) scale.
## Confidence level used: 0.95
```

Transformations and link functions are supported an several ways in
**emmeans**, making this a complex topic worthy of its own vignette. Here, we show just the
most basic approach. Namely, specifying the argument
`type = "response"`

will cause the displayed results to be
back-transformed to the response scale, when a transformation or link
function is incorporated in the model. For example, let’s try the
preceding `test()`

call again:

`test(pigs.emm.s, null = log(40), side = ">", type = "response")`

```
## source response SE df null t.ratio p.value
## fish 29.8 1.09 23 40 -8.026 1.0000
## soy 39.1 1.47 23 40 -0.577 0.7153
## skim 44.6 1.75 23 40 2.740 0.0058
##
## Results are averaged over the levels of: percent
## P values are right-tailed
## Tests are performed on the log scale
```

Note what changes and what doesn’t change. In the `test()`

call, we *still* use the log of 40 as the null value;
`null`

must always be specified on the linear-prediction
scale, in this case the log. In the output, the displayed estimates, as
well as the `null`

value, are shown back-transformed. As
well, the standard errors are altered (using the delta method). However,
the *t* ratios and *P* values are identical to the
preceding results. That is, the tests themselves are still conducted on
the linear-predictor scale (as is noted in the output).

Similar statements apply to confidence intervals on the response scale:

`confint(pigs.emm.s, side = ">", level = .90, type = "response")`

```
## source response SE df lower.CL upper.CL
## fish 29.8 1.09 23 28.4 Inf
## soy 39.1 1.47 23 37.3 Inf
## skim 44.6 1.75 23 42.3 Inf
##
## Results are averaged over the levels of: percent
## Confidence level used: 0.9
## Intervals are back-transformed from the log scale
```

With `side = ">"`

, a *lower* confidence limit is
computed on the log scale, then that limit is back-transformed to the
response scale. (We have also illustrated how to change the confidence
level.)

Both tests and confidence intervals may be adjusted for simultaneous
inference. Such adjustments ensure that the confidence coefficient for a
whole set of intervals is at least the specified level, or to control
for multiplicity in a whole family of tests. This is done via the
`adjust`

argument. For `ref_grid()`

and
`emmeans()`

results, the default is
`adjust = "none"`

. For most `contrast()`

results,
`adjust`

is often something else, depending on what type of
contrasts are created. For example, pairwise comparisons default to
`adjust = "tukey"`

, i.e., the Tukey HSD method. The
`summary()`

function sometimes *changes*
`adjust`

if it is inappropriate. For example, with

`confint(pigs.emm.s, adjust = "tukey")`

```
## Note: adjust = "tukey" was changed to "sidak"
## because "tukey" is only appropriate for one set of pairwise comparisons
```

```
## source emmean SE df lower.CL upper.CL
## fish 3.39 0.0367 23 3.30 3.49
## soy 3.67 0.0374 23 3.57 3.76
## skim 3.80 0.0394 23 3.70 3.90
##
## Results are averaged over the levels of: percent
## Results are given on the log (not the response) scale.
## Confidence level used: 0.95
## Conf-level adjustment: sidak method for 3 estimates
```

the adjustment is changed to the Sidak method because the Tukey adjustment is inappropriate unless you are doing pairwise comparisons.

An adjustment method that is usually appropriate is Bonferroni;
however, it can be quite conservative. Using `adjust = "mvt"`

is the closest to being the “exact” all-around method “single-step”
method, as it uses the multivariate *t* distribution (and the
**mvtnorm** package) with the same covariance structure as
the estimates to determine the adjustment. However, this comes at high
computational expense as the computations are done using simulation
techniques. For a large set of tests (and especially confidence
intervals), the computational lag becomes noticeable if not
intolerable.

For tests, `adjust`

increases the *P* values over
those otherwise obtained with `adjust = "none"`

. Compare the
following adjusted tests with the unadjusted ones previously
computed.

`test(pigs.emm.s, null = log(40), side = ">", adjust = "bonferroni")`

```
## source emmean SE df null t.ratio p.value
## fish 3.39 0.0367 23 3.69 -8.026 1.0000
## soy 3.67 0.0374 23 3.69 -0.577 1.0000
## skim 3.80 0.0394 23 3.69 2.740 0.0175
##
## Results are averaged over the levels of: percent
## Results are given on the log (not the response) scale.
## P value adjustment: bonferroni method for 3 tests
## P values are right-tailed
```

Sometimes you want to break a summary down into smaller pieces; for
this purpose, the `by`

argument in `summary()`

is
useful. For example,

`confint(pigs.rg, by = "source")`

```
## source = fish:
## percent prediction SE df lower.CL upper.CL
## 9 3.22 0.0536 23 3.11 3.33
## 12 3.40 0.0493 23 3.30 3.50
## 15 3.44 0.0548 23 3.32 3.55
## 18 3.52 0.0547 23 3.41 3.63
##
## source = soy:
## percent prediction SE df lower.CL upper.CL
## 9 3.49 0.0498 23 3.39 3.60
## 12 3.67 0.0489 23 3.57 3.77
## 15 3.71 0.0507 23 3.61 3.82
## 18 3.79 0.0640 23 3.66 3.93
##
## source = skim:
## percent prediction SE df lower.CL upper.CL
## 9 3.62 0.0501 23 3.52 3.73
## 12 3.80 0.0494 23 3.70 3.90
## 15 3.84 0.0549 23 3.73 3.95
## 18 3.92 0.0646 23 3.79 4.06
##
## Results are given on the log (not the response) scale.
## Confidence level used: 0.95
```

If there is also an `adjust`

in force when `by`

variables are used, by default, the adjustment is made
*separately* on each `by`

group; e.g., in the above,
we would be adjusting for sets of 4 intervals, not all 12 together (but
see “cross-adjustments” below.)

There can be a `by`

specification in
`emmeans()`

(or equivalently, a `|`

in the
formula); and if so, it is passed on to `summary()`

and used
unless overridden by another `by`

. Here are examples, not
run:

```
emmeans(pigs.lm, ~ percent | source) ### same results as above
summary(.Last.value, by = percent) ### grouped the other way
```

Specifying `by = NULL`

will remove all grouping.

`by`

groupsAs was mentioned, each `by`

group is regarded as a
separate family with regards to the `adjust`

procedure. For
example, consider a model with interaction for the
`warpbreaks`

data, and construct pairwise comparisons of
`tension`

by `wool`

:

```
warp.lm <- lm(breaks ~ wool * tension, data = warpbreaks)
warp.pw <- pairs(emmeans(warp.lm, ~ tension | wool))
warp.pw
```

```
## wool = A:
## contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## L - M 20.556 5.16 48 3.986 0.0007
## L - H 20.000 5.16 48 3.878 0.0009
## M - H -0.556 5.16 48 -0.108 0.9936
##
## wool = B:
## contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## L - M -0.556 5.16 48 -0.108 0.9936
## L - H 9.444 5.16 48 1.831 0.1704
## M - H 10.000 5.16 48 1.939 0.1389
##
## P value adjustment: tukey method for comparing a family of 3 estimates
```

We have two sets of 3 comparisons, and the (default) Tukey adjustment
is made *separately* in each group.

However, sometimes we want the multiplicity adjustment to be broader.
This broadening can be done in two ways. One is to remove the
`by`

variable, which then treats all results as one family.
In our example:

`test(warp.pw, by = NULL, adjust = "bonferroni")`

```
## contrast wool estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## L - M A 20.556 5.16 48 3.986 0.0014
## L - H A 20.000 5.16 48 3.878 0.0019
## M - H A -0.556 5.16 48 -0.108 1.0000
## L - M B -0.556 5.16 48 -0.108 1.0000
## L - H B 9.444 5.16 48 1.831 0.4396
## M - H B 10.000 5.16 48 1.939 0.3504
##
## P value adjustment: bonferroni method for 6 tests
```

This accomplishes the goal of putting all the comparisons in one
family of 6 comparisons. Note that the Tukey adjustment may not be used
here because we no longer have *one* set of pairwise
comparisons.

An alternative is to specify `cross.adjust`

, which
specifies an additional adjustment method to apply to corresponding sets
of within-group adjusted *P* values:

`test(warp.pw, adjust = "tukey", cross.adjust = "bonferroni")`

```
## wool = A:
## contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## L - M 20.556 5.16 48 3.986 0.0013
## L - H 20.000 5.16 48 3.878 0.0018
## M - H -0.556 5.16 48 -0.108 1.0000
##
## wool = B:
## contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## L - M -0.556 5.16 48 -0.108 1.0000
## L - H 9.444 5.16 48 1.831 0.3407
## M - H 10.000 5.16 48 1.939 0.2777
##
## P value adjustment: tukey method for comparing a family of 3 estimates
## Cross-group P-value adjustment: bonferroni
```

These adjustments are less conservative than the previous result, but
it is still a conservative adjustment to the set of 6 tests. Had we also
specified `adjust = "bonferroni"`

, we would have obtained the
same adjusted *P* values as we obtained with
`by = NULL`

.

There is also a `simple`

argument for
`contrast()`

that is in essence the inverse of
`by`

; the contrasts are run using everything *except*
the specified variables as `by`

variables. To illustrate,
let’s consider the model for `pigs`

that includes the
interaction (so that the levels of one factor compare differently at
levels of the other factor).

```
pigsint.lm <- lm(log(conc) ~ source * factor(percent), data = pigs)
pigsint.rg <- ref_grid(pigsint.lm)
contrast(pigsint.rg, "consec", simple = "percent")
```

```
## source = fish:
## contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## percent12 - percent9 0.1849 0.1061 17 1.742 0.2357
## percent15 - percent12 0.0045 0.1061 17 0.042 0.9999
## percent18 - percent15 0.0407 0.1061 17 0.383 0.9626
##
## source = soy:
## contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## percent12 - percent9 0.1412 0.0949 17 1.487 0.3593
## percent15 - percent12 -0.0102 0.0949 17 -0.108 0.9992
## percent18 - percent15 0.0895 0.1342 17 0.666 0.8572
##
## source = skim:
## contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## percent12 - percent9 0.2043 0.0949 17 2.152 0.1185
## percent15 - percent12 0.1398 0.1061 17 1.317 0.4519
## percent18 - percent15 0.1864 0.1424 17 1.309 0.4566
##
## Results are given on the log (not the response) scale.
## P value adjustment: mvt method for 3 tests
```

In fact, we may do *all* one-factor comparisons by specifying
`simple = "each"`

. This typically produces a lot of output,
so use it with care.

From the above, we already know how to test individual results. For pairwise comparisons (details in the “comparisons” vignette), we might do

```
pigs.prs.s <- pairs(pigs.emm.s)
pigs.prs.s
```

```
## contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## fish - soy -0.273 0.0529 23 -5.153 0.0001
## fish - skim -0.402 0.0542 23 -7.428 <.0001
## soy - skim -0.130 0.0530 23 -2.442 0.0570
##
## Results are averaged over the levels of: percent
## Results are given on the log (not the response) scale.
## P value adjustment: tukey method for comparing a family of 3 estimates
```

But suppose we want an *omnibus* test that all these
comparisons are zero. Easy enough, using the `joint`

argument
in `test`

(note: the `joint`

argument is
*not* available in `summary()`

; only in
`test()`

):

`test(pigs.prs.s, joint = TRUE)`

```
## df1 df2 F.ratio p.value note
## 2 23 28.849 <.0001 d
##
## d: df1 reduced due to linear dependence
```

Notice that there are three comparisons, but only 2 d.f. for the test, as cautioned in the message.

The test produced with `joint = TRUE`

is a “type III” test
(assuming the default equal weights are used to obtain the EMMs). See
more on these types of tests for higher-order effects in the “interactions” vignette section on
contrasts.

For convenience, there is also a `joint_tests()`

function
that performs joint tests of contrasts among each term in a model or
`emmGrid`

object.

`joint_tests(pigsint.rg)`

```
## model term df1 df2 F.ratio p.value
## source 2 17 30.256 <.0001
## percent 3 17 8.214 0.0013
## source:percent 6 17 0.926 0.5011
```

The tests of main effects are of families of contrasts; those for interaction effects are for interaction contrasts. These results are essentially the same as a “Type-III ANOVA”, but may differ in situations where there are empty cells or other non-estimability issues, or if generalizations are present such as unequal weighting. (Another distinction is that sums of squares and mean squares are not shown; that is because these really are tests of contrasts among predictions, and they may or may not correspond to model sums of squares.)

One may use `by`

variables with `joint_tests`

.
For example:

`joint_tests(pigsint.rg, by = "source")`

```
## source = fish:
## model term df1 df2 F.ratio p.value
## percent 3 17 1.712 0.2023
##
## source = soy:
## model term df1 df2 F.ratio p.value
## percent 3 17 1.290 0.3097
##
## source = skim:
## model term df1 df2 F.ratio p.value
## percent 3 17 6.676 0.0035
```

In some models, it is possible to specify
`submodel = "type2"`

, thereby obtaining something akin to a
Type II analysis of variance. See the messy-data vignette for an
example.

The `delta`

argument in `summary()`

or
`test()`

allows the user to specify a threshold value to use
in a test of equivalence, noninferiority, or nonsuperiority. An
equivalence test is kind of a backwards significance test, where small
*P* values are associated with small differences relative to a
specified threshold value `delta`

. The help page for
`summary.emmGrid`

gives the details of these tests. Suppose
in the present example, we consider two sources to be equivalent if they
are within 25% of each other. We can test this as follows:

`test(pigs.prs.s, delta = log(1.25), adjust = "none")`

```
## contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
## fish - soy -0.273 0.0529 23 0.937 0.8209
## fish - skim -0.402 0.0542 23 3.308 0.9985
## soy - skim -0.130 0.0530 23 -1.765 0.0454
##
## Results are averaged over the levels of: percent
## Results are given on the log (not the response) scale.
## Statistics are tests of equivalence with a threshold of 0.22314
## P values are left-tailed
```

By our 25% standard, the *P* value is quite small for
comparing soy and skim, providing statistical evidence that their
difference is enough smaller than the threshold to consider them
equivalent.

Graphical displays of `emmGrid`

objects are described in
the “basics” vignette